UPSC Essentials | Mains answer practice — GS 1 (Week 21) | UPSC Current Affairs News

UPSC Essentials | Mains answer practice — GS 1 (Week 21) | UPSC Current Affairs News

UPSC Essentials brings to you its initiative for the practice of Mains answer writing. Mains Answer Writing covers essential topics of static and dynamic parts of the UPSC Civil Services syllabus covered under various GS papers. This answer-writing practice is designed to help you as a value addition to your UPSC CSE Mains. Attempt today’s answer writing on questions related to topics of GS-1 to check your progress.

What is the link between flash droughts and climate change? Highlight some recent examples.


Explain why suicide among young women is increasing in Indian society. (PYQ 2023)

General points on the structure of the answers


— The introduction of the answer is essential and should be restricted to 3-5 lines. Remember, a one-liner is not a standard introduction.

— It may consist of basic information by giving some definitions from the trusted source and authentic facts.


Festive offer

— It is the central part of the answer and one should understand the demand of the question to provide rich content.

— The answer must be preferably written as a mix of points and short paragraphs rather than using long paragraphs or just points.

— Using facts from authentic government sources makes your answer more comprehensive. Analysis is important based on the demand of the question, but do not over analyse.

— Underlining keywords gives you an edge over other candidates and enhances presentation of the answer.

— Using flowcharts/tree-diagram in the answers saves much time and boosts your score. However, it should be used logically and only where it is required.

Way forward/ Conclusion

— The ending of the answer should be on a positive note and it should have a forward-looking approach. However, if you feel that an important problem must be highlighted, you may add it in your conclusion. Try not to repeat any point from body or introduction.

— You may use the findings of reports or surveys conducted at national and international levels, quotes etc. in your answers.

Self Evaluation

— It is the most important part of our Mains answer writing practice. UPSC Essentials will provide some guiding points or ideas as a thought process that will help you to evaluate your answers.


You may enrich your answers by some of the following points

QUESTION 1: What is the link between flash droughts and climate change? Highlight some recent examples.


— Drought is caused by rainfall variability, which results in rainfall insufficiency and water scarcity.

— In India, the South West Monsoon Period (June-September) receives over three-fourths of the annual rainfall, and the irregular character of the monsoon (South West Monsoon), with lengthy dry spells and high temperatures, is mostly responsible for drought.

— The various state governments declare drought depending on rainfall, agricultural growth, and other variables.


You may incorporate some of the following points in the body of your answer:

— According to new research, flash droughts are growing more prevalent and faster to develop worldwide, and human caused climate change is a significant factor.

— The study found that flash droughts occurred more often than slower ones in tropical places like India, Southeast Asia, sub-Saharan Africa and the Amazon basin.

— Flash droughts are more common in the humid tropics than gradual droughts. The rainy seasons are generally enough to keep the ground and plants moist. However, if the rains fail suddenly, the tropical heat can dehydrate the earth to disastrous effect.

— According to a recent World Meteorological Organisation (WMO) assessment, Asia is the world’s most disaster-prone area, with 81 weather, climate, and water-related disasters expected in 2022. According to the research, these disasters directly impacted more than 50 million people, with about 5,000 people dead and $36 billion in economic loss.

— This rise in temperatures has had some severe fallouts, including an uptick in the occurrence of extreme weather events.

Recent Examples

— According to government data of Karnataka, the state has faced drought in 16 of the 23 years since 2001.

— This year’s drought is the worst yet, with the state declaring drought in 195 taluks, including those in the Bengaluru Urban district, because to a poor South West (SW) monsoon.

— The Amazon rainforest is reeling from an intense drought. Numerous rivers vital for travel have dried up. As a result, there is no water, food, or medicine in villages of Indigenous communities living in the area.

— Amazon rainforest covers nearly seven million square kilometres, or about the area of Australia, and stores more than 150 billion metric tonnes of carbon.

(Source: What a new study says on the link between ‘flash droughts’ and climate change, Severe drought grips the Amazon rainforest: The impact, cause and grim future by Alind Chauhan, Karnataka faced drought conditions in 16 or 23 years since 2001; state facing ‘Green Drought’: Govt tells central team by Akram M,

Points to Ponder

Types of Drought

World Meteorological Organization Report

Related Previous Year Questions

Discuss the consequence of Climate change on the food security in tropical countries. (2023)

Differentiate the causes of landslides in the Himalayan region and Western Ghats. (2021)

QUESTION 2: Explain why suicide among young women is increasing in Indian society. (PYQ 2023)


— According to a study published by “The Global Burden of Disease Study”. Published in the Lancet Public Health journal, the report stated that 63 per cent of all suicide deaths reported in India were in the age group of 15-39.

— According to WHO, India has around 57 million individuals (almost 18% of the worldwide estimate) suffering from depression. As a result, it’s not surprising that suicide is one of the top causes of death in the United States.


You may incorporate some of the following points in the body of your answer:

— The report stated that a warning level of ignorance and stigmatization, family pressures, career, and financial worries, as well as the increasing influence of social media, are reasons behind the risk of high suicide rates in India.

— The study discovered large disparities in suicide death rates among Indian states. Suicide death rates for both men and women were high in Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, West Bengal, and Tripura.

— India’s suicide rate in 2019, at 12.9/1,00,000, was higher than the regional average of 10.2 and the global average of 9.0. Suicide has become the leading cause of death among those aged 15–29 in India.

— Young people’s usage of certain types of social media is also aggravating stress and mental illness. Social media detracts from better face-to-face connections and diminishes involvement in meaningful activities. More significantly, it undermines self-esteem through negative social comparison.

— Mental illness has far-reaching socioeconomic consequences. It is the greatest cause of disability worldwide, and it is inextricably related to poverty, creating a vicious cycle of disadvantage. People who live in poverty are more likely to suffer from mental health problems.

— Stigma and discrimination often further undermine their social support structures.

— The suicide death rate for women in India was found to be 15 per one lakh women, which was twice the global suicide rate for women (7 per one lakh women).

— One leading cause of suicide amongst women in India could be attributed to marriage.The study stated that married women account for high proportion of suicide deaths in India.

(Source: India accounts for 37 per cent of global suicide deaths among women, marriage may be a cause: Study, Why we need to focus on mental health by Indu Bhushan)

Points to Ponder

Variations in suicide rates

Related Previous Year Questions

How does patriarchy impact the position of a middle class working woman in India? (2014)

Discuss the positive and negative effects of globalization on women in India. (2015)

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Previous Mains Answer Practice

UPSC Essentials: Mains answer practice — GS 1 (Week 20)

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UPSC Essentials: Mains answer practice — GS 2 (Week 21)

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UPSC Essentials: Mains answer practice — GS 3 (Week 21)

UPSC Essentials: Mains answer practice — GS 3 (Week 20)

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